Proteases (Cysteine)

Proteases, also known as proteolytic enzymes, are enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of proteins by hydrolysis of peptide bonds. By cleaving proteins, proteases are involved in the control of a large number of key physiological processes such as cell-cycle progression, cell proliferation and cell death, DNA replication, tissue remodeling, haemostasis (coagulation), wound healing and the immune response. So far, inappropriate proteolysis has been found to have a major role in cancer as well as cardiovascularinflammatoryneurodegenerativebacterial, viral and parasitic diseases. Because excessive proteolysis can be prevented by blocking the appropriate proteases, this area is widely explored by pharmaceutical companies. Their mechanism of action classifies the large family of proteases as either serinecysteine or threonine proteases (amino-terminal nucleophile hydrolases), or as asparticmetallo and glutamic proteases (with glutamic proteases being the only subtype not found in mammals so far)[1]. Interestingly, the serine and cysteine proteases act directly as nucleophiles to attack the substrate (by generating covalent acyl enzyme intermediates). On the other hand, the aspartyl and zinc proteases activate water molecules as the direct attacking species on the peptide bond. Proteases of the different classes can be further grouped into families on the basis of amino acid sequence comparison, and families can be assembled into clans based on similarities in their three-dimensional structures[2].
A wide variety of cysteine proteases (CPs) exists, that share the common feature of hydrolyzing substrates by direct nucleophilic attack of a deprotonated cysteine residue at the enzyme’s catalytic site. CPs are responsible for many biochemical processes occurring in living organisms and they have been implicated in the development and progression of several diseases that involve abnormal protein turnover. The activity of CPs is regulated among others by their specific inhibitors: cystatins. Mammalian cysteine proteinases fall into two classes: caspases and the papain superfamily comprising the papain family, calpains and bleomycin hydrolases[3].

[1] Targeting proteases: successes, failures and future prospects. Boris Turk. Nature Reviews – Drug Discovery. Volume 5, 2006, 785-799.
[2] Proteases: Multifunctional Enzymes in Life and Disease. C. López-Otín, J.S. Bond. J. Biol. Chem. 2008, 283, 30433-30437.
[3] M. Rzychon, D. Chmiel, J. Stec-Niemczyk. Modes of inhibition of cysteine proteases. Act. Biochim. Pol. 2004, 51, 861-873.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
2006 Apoptosis Activator 2 A cell-permeable apoptosis activator €75.00
2154 Balicatib Selective inhibitor of cathepsin K €50.00
2158 Boc-D-FMK Broad spectrum caspase inhibitor €110.00
1375 Ivachtin Caspase-3 inhibitor €55.00
3744 KEA1-97 Thioredoxin-caspase 3 interaction disruptor €90.00
2054 MALT1 inhibitor MI-2 Highly potent and selective MALT1 inhibitor €125.00
1771 MK 0822 Inhibitor of cathepsin K €60.00
1883 NS 3694 Inhibitor of apoptosis; Inhibits formation of apoptosome complex €90.00
2156 ONO 5334 Potent and orally available inhibitor of cathepsin K €140.00
1743 PAC 1 Procaspase activating compound 1 €80.00
1571 Rupintrivir HRV3C protease inhibitor €80.00
3082 SIC5-6 Specific, noncovalent separase inhibitor €110.00
3149 TC11 Anti-tumor agent; Apoptosis inducer €110.00
2193 Thioridazine hydrochloride DA and α1 adrenoceptor antagonist; MALT1 inhibitor €50.00
3857 VX-765 Caspase-1 inhibitor Inquire
2159 Z-VAD-FMK Pan-caspase inhibitor with in vivo activity Inquire

16 Item(s)

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