Toll-like Receptors

Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise a large family consisting of at least 11 members, a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. The cytoplasmic portion of this family of transmembrane receptors shows homology with the cytoplasmic domains of Drosophila Toll and the IL-1 receptor family, and is termed a Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain[1]. Despite this similarity, the extracellular portions of both types of receptors are structurally unrelated. TLRs bear leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) in the extracellular domain, critical for recognition of the microbial components derived from pathogens including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses[3].


[1] F.L. Rock et al. A family of human receptors structurally related to Drosophila Toll. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1998, 95, 588-593.
[2] W. Gong et al. A novel 1,2-benzenediamine derivative FC-99 suppresses TLR3 expression and ameliorates disease symptoms in a mouse model of sepsis. Br. J. Pharmacol. 2014, 171, 4866-4878.
[3] K. Takeda et al. Toll-like receptors in innate immunity. Int. Immunol. 2005, 17, 1-14.

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2455 CU-T12-9 Selective TLR1/TLR2 agonist that facilitates the TLR1/2 complex formation €120.00
2318 FC 99 hydrochloride Inhibitor of TLR3 expression and inflammatory responses. €95.00

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