TLR3

Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise a large family consisting of at least 11 members, a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. The cytoplasmic portion of this family of transmembrane receptors shows homology with the cytoplasmic domains of Drosophila Toll and the IL-1 receptor family, and is termed a Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain[1]. Despite this similarity, the extracellular portions of both types of receptors are structurally unrelated. TLRs bear leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) in the extracellular domain, critical for recognition of the microbial components derived from pathogens including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. Specifically, TLR3 is implicated in the recognition of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from virus, degraded bacteria, damaged tissues and necrotic cells[2] and results in TRIF-dependent activation of IRF-3 and NF-κB[3].


[1] F.L. Rock et al. A family of human receptors structurally related to Drosophila Toll. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1998, 95, 588-593.
[2] W. Gong et al. A novel 1,2-benzenediamine derivative FC-99 suppresses TLR3 expression and ameliorates disease symptoms in a mouse model of sepsis. Br. J. Pharmacol. 2014, 171, 4866-4878.
[3] K. Takeda et al. Toll-like receptors in innate immunity. Int. Immunol. 2005, 17, 1-14.

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2318 FC 99 hydrochloride Inhibitor of TLR3 expression and inflammatory responses. €95.00

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