Endocrinology

The endocrine system is a network of eight ductless glands that produce and release hormones that regulate homeostasis, metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep and mood, among other things, into the blood. Unlike the nervous system, whose action helps the body react immediately to change, the endocrine system controls changes that happen to the body over a long period of time; from minutes, hours, to years of change. The major glands of the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal body, and the reproductive organs (ovaries and testes). The pancreas is also a part of this system; it has a role in hormone production as well as in digestion.
The hormones released by the endocrine system can be grouped into three classes based on their structure: steroids (cholesterol derivatives, secreted by the gonads, adrenal cortex, and placenta), peptides (small-chain amino acids, secreted by the pituitary, parathyroid, heart, stomach, liver, and kidneys), and amines (tyrosine derivatives, secreted from the thyroid and the adrenal medulla). These hormones affect the target cells by two different mechanisms. Nonsteroid hormones (water soluble) do not enter the cell but bind to plasma membrane receptors, and transduce their signal through second messenger systems into the target cell's interior. Steroid hormones, in contrast, pass through the plasma membrane of the target cells and act in a two step process in which they bind to nuclear membrane receptors, producing an activated hormone-receptor complex. The activated hormone-receptor complex, in turn, binds to DNA and activates specific genes, increasing the production of proteins.
The endocrine system uses cycles and negative feedback which helps to control the delicate balance of hormones in the bloodstream and regulate physiological functions. However, minor changes in the function of one or more of the glands of the endocrine system, changes in the blood's fluid and electrolyte balance, or several external factors such as stress or infection can distort the balance of hormones and lead to an endocrine disorder, or endocrine disease. Hypothyroidism, thyroid cancer, fertility issues, diabetes, and other metabolic disorders are typical examples of problems that originate from imbalances of the enodcrine system.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
1873 Abiraterone Inhibitor of CYP17A1 €90.00
1874 Abiraterone acetate Prodrug of Abiraterone; Inhibitor of CYP17A1 €90.00
1751 ADL 5859 Selective δ-opioid receptor agonist €115.00
2031 AIM 100 Specific inhibitor of Ack1 tyrosine kinase (also known as TNK2) €95.00
1648 Ambrisentan Endothelin-A (ETA) antagonist €80.00
1321 Antalarmin hydrochloride CRF1 antagonist €105.00
2541 APD 597 Orally bioavailable selective GPR119 agonist €125.00
2380 APD 668 Potent and selective, orally active GPR119 agonist €125.00
1979 ARN 509 Antagonist of androgen receptor (AR) €95.00
1675 Asoprisnil Progesterone receptor (PR) modulator €120.00
1170 Axon 1170 Building Block; unknown pharmacology €330.00
1171 Axon 1171 Building Block; unknown pharmacology €115.00
5051 Axon Ligands™ Cell signaling and Oncology compound library Axon Ligands™ Cell signaling and Oncology compound library Inquire
2340 AZ-GHS-22 Orally available Ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) inverse agonist €160.00
2153 AZD 3463 Potent inhibitor of ALK and IGF1R €105.00

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