Signaling Pathways

Axon Ligands™ for research on Signaling Pathways

A basic property of living systems is the ability to respond to extracellular signals by evoking an internal response. Signal-transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of these stimuli. These molecular circuits detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, phenotypic alterations, or ion-channel activity. Signal-transduction pathways follow a broadly similar course that can be viewed as a molecular circuit. Upon an environmental signal, Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Subsequently, second messengers relay information from the receptor-ligand complex into the cell's interior. Particularly important second messengers include cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, calcium ion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, (IP3), and diacylglycerol. While these second messengers are free to move, they can easily diffuse to other compartments of the cell, such as the nucleus, where they can influence gene expression and other processes. Interestingly, signal transduction may be amplified significantly in the generation of second messengers, since initial stimulation may lead to the generation of many second messengers within the cell. Thus, a low concentration of signal in the environment, even as little as a single molecule, can yield a large intracellular signal and response. Besides this phenomenon, cross-talk between two or more signaling cascades may occur, which permits more finely tuned regulation of cell activity than would the action of individual independent pathways[1]


[1] Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism. Biochemistry. 5th edition. J.M. Berg, J.L.Tymoczko, L. Stryer.New York, 2002.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
2926 AZD 6482 PI3K inhibitor (p110 β specific) €120.00
1399 AZD 7762 hydrochloride CHK inhibitor €60.00
1561 AZD 8055 mTOR inhibitor €95.00
1999 AZD 8330 MEK 1 inhibitor €105.00
2342 AZD 9291 Potent oral, irreversible, third-generation EGFR TKI with selectivity for mutant EGFRs €95.00
1282 BAG 956 PI3K and PDPK1 inhibitor €95.00
2185 BAM 7 Selective small-molecule activator of proapoptotic BAX €105.00
2774 Barbadin β-Arrestin/β2-Adaptin inhibitor €110.00
1955 Baricitinib Inhibitor of JAK1 and JAK2 €90.00
2132 BAY 11-7082 IKK inhibitor and anti-inflammatory €85.00
2918 BAY 1895344 Potent, orally available and highly selective inhibitor of ATR protein kinase €100.00
2178 BCI Allosteric inhibitor of dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSP) €75.00
2852 BCI hydrochloride Allosteric inhibitor of dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSP) €75.00
1281 BEZ 235 PI3K and mTOR tyrosine kinase inhibitor €60.00
1528 BI-D1870 RSK inhibitor (p90 RSK specific) €80.00

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