Signaling Pathways

Axon Ligands™ for research on Signaling Pathways

A basic property of living systems is the ability to respond to extracellular signals by evoking an internal response. Signal-transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of these stimuli. These molecular circuits detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, phenotypic alterations, or ion-channel activity. Signal-transduction pathways follow a broadly similar course that can be viewed as a molecular circuit. Upon an environmental signal, Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Subsequently, second messengers relay information from the receptor-ligand complex into the cell's interior. Particularly important second messengers include cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, calcium ion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, (IP3), and diacylglycerol. While these second messengers are free to move, they can easily diffuse to other compartments of the cell, such as the nucleus, where they can influence gene expression and other processes. Interestingly, signal transduction may be amplified significantly in the generation of second messengers, since initial stimulation may lead to the generation of many second messengers within the cell. Thus, a low concentration of signal in the environment, even as little as a single molecule, can yield a large intracellular signal and response. Besides this phenomenon, cross-talk between two or more signaling cascades may occur, which permits more finely tuned regulation of cell activity than would the action of individual independent pathways[1]


[1] Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism. Biochemistry. 5th edition. J.M. Berg, J.L.Tymoczko, L. Stryer.New York, 2002.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
1378 AG 490 JAK2 inhibitor €65.00
2389 AICAR Potent AMPK activator and inducer of differentiation of NSCs €45.00
2269 AK 1 Potent inhibitor of SIRT with good selectivity for SIRT2 over SIRT1 and SIRT3 €90.00
2270 AK 7 Potent, brain-permeable and selective inhibitor of SIRT2 €90.00
2540 Akt Inhibitor VIII Inhibitor of Akt1 and 2 with significant off-side effects (CaMKIα and AhR) €125.00
2925 Alpelisib PI3K inhibitor (p110-α specific) €90.00
2639 AMG 232 Potent, selective, and orally bioavailable MDM2-p53 inhibitor €115.00
1496 Aminobenzamide, 3- Competitive small molecule inhibitor of PARP €45.00
2368 Amuvatinib RTK inhibitor which effectively inhibits PDGFR, c-Kit and c-Met €105.00
1857 AP 24534 BCR-ABL kinase inhibitor (including T315I mutation) €90.00
2500 Apilimod dimesylate Cytokine inhibitor; IL-12 and IL-23 inhibitor Inquire
2251 Apoptozole Inhibitor of ATPase activity of Hsc70 and Hsp70 €95.00
2611 APS-2-79 Inhibitor of KSR and oncogenic Ras signaling €90.00
2394 AR-42 HDAC inhibitor €125.00
2167 AR-A 014418 ATP-competitive GSK-3 inhibitor €85.00

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