Signaling Pathways

Axon Ligands™ for research on Signaling Pathways

A basic property of living systems is the ability to respond to extracellular signals by evoking an internal response. Signal-transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of these stimuli. These molecular circuits detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, phenotypic alterations, or ion-channel activity. Signal-transduction pathways follow a broadly similar course that can be viewed as a molecular circuit. Upon an environmental signal, Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Subsequently, second messengers relay information from the receptor-ligand complex into the cell's interior. Particularly important second messengers include cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, calcium ion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, (IP3), and diacylglycerol. While these second messengers are free to move, they can easily diffuse to other compartments of the cell, such as the nucleus, where they can influence gene expression and other processes. Interestingly, signal transduction may be amplified significantly in the generation of second messengers, since initial stimulation may lead to the generation of many second messengers within the cell. Thus, a low concentration of signal in the environment, even as little as a single molecule, can yield a large intracellular signal and response. Besides this phenomenon, cross-talk between two or more signaling cascades may occur, which permits more finely tuned regulation of cell activity than would the action of individual independent pathways[1]


[1] Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism. Biochemistry. 5th edition. J.M. Berg, J.L.Tymoczko, L. Stryer.New York, 2002.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
1810 Bortezomib Inhibitor of 26S proteasome €85.00
2935 COH000 First-in-class, highly specific, covalent allosteric inhibitor of SUMO E1 €175.00
1798 Eeyarestatin I Inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation (ERAD) €80.00
2449 LDN 57444 Reversible, competitive inhibitor of UCH-L1 deubiquitinase €95.00
1869 MG 132 Inhibitor of 26S proteasome €95.00
2309 ML 323 Selective, reversible and potent inhibitor of the USP1–UAF1 deubiquitinase complex €95.00
2995 ML 367 Inhibitor of ATAD5 stabilization  Recently added €125.00
2678 ML364 Inhibitor of the deubiquitinase USP2 €125.00
2556 MLN 2238 Selective and reversible 20S proteasome inhibitor €85.00
2557 MLN 9708 Citrate prodrug of MLN 2238, selective and reversible 20S proteasome inhibitor €95.00
2565 N106 Activator of E1 ligase mediated SERCA2a SUMOylation €95.00
2228 NSC 687852 Inhibitor of 19S regulatory-particle–associated deubiquitinases (DUBs: UCHL5 and USP14) €90.00
2199 ONX 0914 Selective inhibitor of LMP7 subunit of the immunoproteasome. €95.00
2011 P 005091 Inhibitor of deubiquitinase USP7 and USP47 €95.00
1906 P 22077 Inhibitor of deubiquitinase USP7 and USP47 €95.00

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