Signaling Pathways

Axon Ligands™ for research on Signaling Pathways

A basic property of living systems is the ability to respond to extracellular signals by evoking an internal response. Signal-transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of these stimuli. These molecular circuits detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, phenotypic alterations, or ion-channel activity. Signal-transduction pathways follow a broadly similar course that can be viewed as a molecular circuit. Upon an environmental signal, Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Subsequently, second messengers relay information from the receptor-ligand complex into the cell's interior. Particularly important second messengers include cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, calcium ion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, (IP3), and diacylglycerol. While these second messengers are free to move, they can easily diffuse to other compartments of the cell, such as the nucleus, where they can influence gene expression and other processes. Interestingly, signal transduction may be amplified significantly in the generation of second messengers, since initial stimulation may lead to the generation of many second messengers within the cell. Thus, a low concentration of signal in the environment, even as little as a single molecule, can yield a large intracellular signal and response. Besides this phenomenon, cross-talk between two or more signaling cascades may occur, which permits more finely tuned regulation of cell activity than would the action of individual independent pathways[1]


[1] Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism. Biochemistry. 5th edition. J.M. Berg, J.L.Tymoczko, L. Stryer.New York, 2002.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
1744 A 77-01 TGF-βR 1 inhibitor; ALK 5 inhibitor €80.00
1421 A 83-01 TGF-βR 1 inhibitor; ALK 5 inhibitor €70.00
1708 Dorsomorphin Inhibitor of BMP signaling. Inhibits ALK2, 3 and 6 €65.00
2150 Dorsomorphin dihydrochloride Inhibitor of BMP signaling. Inhibits ALK2, 3 and 6 €65.00
1832 GW 788388 TGF-βR 1 inhibitor €50.00
2236 IN 1130 TGF-βR 1 inhibitor €105.00
2323 ITD 1 Selective inhibitor of TGFβ/Smad signaling that promotes cardiogenesis €105.00
2467 ITD-1, (+)- Selective inhibitor of TGFβ/Smad signaling that promotes cardiogenesis €165.00
2189 K 02288 Inhibitor of BMP signaling. Inhibits ALK1, 2, and 6 €90.00
1509 LDN 193189 hydrochloride Highly potent small molecule inhibitor of BMP type I receptors ALK2, ALK3, and ALK6 €65.00
2201 LDN 212854 trihydrochloride Potent ALK2-biased BMP type I receptor kinase inhibitor €105.00
1491 LY 2157299 TGF-βR2 inhibitor €65.00
1661 SB 431542 TGF-βR1 inhibitor; ALK inhibitor €70.00
2197 SB 505124 Selective inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptors ALK4 and ALK5 €95.00
2285 SB 525334 Potent and selective inhibitor of the TGF-βR1 (ALK5) receptor €105.00

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