Signaling Pathways

Axon Ligands™ for research on Signaling Pathways

A basic property of living systems is the ability to respond to extracellular signals by evoking an internal response. Signal-transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of these stimuli. These molecular circuits detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, phenotypic alterations, or ion-channel activity. Signal-transduction pathways follow a broadly similar course that can be viewed as a molecular circuit. Upon an environmental signal, Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Subsequently, second messengers relay information from the receptor-ligand complex into the cell's interior. Particularly important second messengers include cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, calcium ion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, (IP3), and diacylglycerol. While these second messengers are free to move, they can easily diffuse to other compartments of the cell, such as the nucleus, where they can influence gene expression and other processes. Interestingly, signal transduction may be amplified significantly in the generation of second messengers, since initial stimulation may lead to the generation of many second messengers within the cell. Thus, a low concentration of signal in the environment, even as little as a single molecule, can yield a large intracellular signal and response. Besides this phenomenon, cross-talk between two or more signaling cascades may occur, which permits more finely tuned regulation of cell activity than would the action of individual independent pathways[1]


[1] Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism. Biochemistry. 5th edition. J.M. Berg, J.L.Tymoczko, L. Stryer.New York, 2002.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
1831 A 66 PI3K inhibitor (p110-α specific) €95.00
2857 Acalisib PI3K inhibitor (p110 δ specific) €120.00
2540 Akt Inhibitor VIII Inhibitor of Akt1 and 2 with significant off-side effects (CaMKIα and AhR) €125.00
2925 Alpelisib PI3K inhibitor (p110-α specific) €90.00
1424 AS 252424 PI3K inhibitor (p110-γ specific) €85.00
1436 AS 252424 bispotassium salt PI3K inhibitor (p110-γ specific) €95.00
2748 Autophinib PIK3C3/Vps34 inhibitor €120.00
1859 AZD 5363 dihydrochloride Inhibitor of protein kinase B (Akt) €110.00
2926 AZD 6482 PI3K inhibitor (p110 β specific) €120.00
1561 AZD 8055 mTOR inhibitor €95.00
1282 BAG 956 PI3K and PDPK1 inhibitor €95.00
1281 BEZ 235 PI3K and mTOR tyrosine kinase inhibitor €60.00
2801 BQR695 PI4K inhibitor €105.00
1390 BX 795 PDPK1, TBK1 and IKK inhibitor €60.00
1130 BX 912 PDPK1 inhibitor €60.00

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