Signaling Pathways

Axon Ligands™ for research on Signaling Pathways

A basic property of living systems is the ability to respond to extracellular signals by evoking an internal response. Signal-transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of these stimuli. These molecular circuits detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, phenotypic alterations, or ion-channel activity. Signal-transduction pathways follow a broadly similar course that can be viewed as a molecular circuit. Upon an environmental signal, Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Subsequently, second messengers relay information from the receptor-ligand complex into the cell's interior. Particularly important second messengers include cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, calcium ion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, (IP3), and diacylglycerol. While these second messengers are free to move, they can easily diffuse to other compartments of the cell, such as the nucleus, where they can influence gene expression and other processes. Interestingly, signal transduction may be amplified significantly in the generation of second messengers, since initial stimulation may lead to the generation of many second messengers within the cell. Thus, a low concentration of signal in the environment, even as little as a single molecule, can yield a large intracellular signal and response. Besides this phenomenon, cross-talk between two or more signaling cascades may occur, which permits more finely tuned regulation of cell activity than would the action of individual independent pathways[1]


[1] Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism. Biochemistry. 5th edition. J.M. Berg, J.L.Tymoczko, L. Stryer.New York, 2002.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
1291 AEG 3482 JNK inhibitor €85.00
2002 AS 602801 JNK inhibitor, which inhibited JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3 €120.00
2179 ASK1 Inhibitor 10 Potent, selective, and orally bioavailable ASK1 inhibitor €125.00
1516 AZD 6244 MEK1 and MEK2 inhibitor €70.00
1999 AZD 8330 MEK 1 inhibitor €105.00
1358 BIRB 796 MAPK inhibitor (p38 specific) €65.00
1808 BIX 02188 MEK5 inhibitor; ERK5 inhibitor €125.00
1809 BIX 02189 MEK5 inhibitor; ERK5 inhibitor €125.00
2856 BMS 582949 Inhibitor of p38α MAPK €155.00
2025 CC-401 ATP-competitive JNK inhibitor €115.00
2634 CC-930 Potent, selective, and orally active anti-fibrotic JNK inhibitor €105.00
1694 FR 180204 ERK inhibitor; AP-1 inhibitor €95.00
1761 GSK 1120212 MEK1 and MEK2 inhibitor €95.00
2361 JNK-IN-8 Remarkably potent and selective covalent inhibitor of JNK €120.00
1895 LY 2228820 Inhibitor of p38 MAPK €105.00

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