Signaling Pathways

Axon Ligands™ for research on Signaling Pathways

A basic property of living systems is the ability to respond to extracellular signals by evoking an internal response. Signal-transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of these stimuli. These molecular circuits detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, phenotypic alterations, or ion-channel activity. Signal-transduction pathways follow a broadly similar course that can be viewed as a molecular circuit. Upon an environmental signal, Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Subsequently, second messengers relay information from the receptor-ligand complex into the cell's interior. Particularly important second messengers include cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, calcium ion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, (IP3), and diacylglycerol. While these second messengers are free to move, they can easily diffuse to other compartments of the cell, such as the nucleus, where they can influence gene expression and other processes. Interestingly, signal transduction may be amplified significantly in the generation of second messengers, since initial stimulation may lead to the generation of many second messengers within the cell. Thus, a low concentration of signal in the environment, even as little as a single molecule, can yield a large intracellular signal and response. Besides this phenomenon, cross-talk between two or more signaling cascades may occur, which permits more finely tuned regulation of cell activity than would the action of individual independent pathways[1]


[1] Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism. Biochemistry. 5th edition. J.M. Berg, J.L.Tymoczko, L. Stryer.New York, 2002.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
1588 TG 101348 JAK2 inhibitor €95.00
2249 Tenovin 6 Small water soluble p53 activator and SIRT inhibitor €105.00
2008 Tenovin 1 Activates p53 through inhibition of SIRT 1 and 2 €70.00
1699 Temsirolimus mTOR inhibitor €95.00
2326 Temozolomide DNA methylating agent; apoptosis inducer €50.00
2010 TDZD 8 Selective and non-ATP-competitive inhibitor of GSK-3β €90.00
2700 TD52 CIP2A inhibitor; Erlotinib derivative €95.00
2333 TCID Potent inhibitor of UCHL3 with >100-fold selectivity over UCHL1 €80.00
2927 Taselisib PI3K inhibitor (p110 β sparing) €90.00
2914 TAS-103 dihydrochloride Dual inhibitor of topoisomerase I (Topo 1) and topoisomerase II (Topo 2) €95.00
2502 Talazoparib Potent, selective, and orally available PARP1/2 inhibitor €90.00
3232 TAK-788 Potent and selective EGFR and ErbB-2/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor  Recently added €70.00
2263 Tacrolimus Potent Calcineurin (Ca2+ dependent protein phosphatase 2B) inhibitor €100.00
2516 Tacalcitol Vitamine D receptor (VDR) agonist with antitumor activity €165.00
2070 Sulfasalazine IKK inhibitor €45.00

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