Signaling Pathways

Axon Ligands™ for research on Signaling Pathways

A basic property of living systems is the ability to respond to extracellular signals by evoking an internal response. Signal-transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of these stimuli. These molecular circuits detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, phenotypic alterations, or ion-channel activity. Signal-transduction pathways follow a broadly similar course that can be viewed as a molecular circuit. Upon an environmental signal, Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Subsequently, second messengers relay information from the receptor-ligand complex into the cell's interior. Particularly important second messengers include cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, calcium ion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, (IP3), and diacylglycerol. While these second messengers are free to move, they can easily diffuse to other compartments of the cell, such as the nucleus, where they can influence gene expression and other processes. Interestingly, signal transduction may be amplified significantly in the generation of second messengers, since initial stimulation may lead to the generation of many second messengers within the cell. Thus, a low concentration of signal in the environment, even as little as a single molecule, can yield a large intracellular signal and response. Besides this phenomenon, cross-talk between two or more signaling cascades may occur, which permits more finely tuned regulation of cell activity than would the action of individual independent pathways[1]


[1] Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism. Biochemistry. 5th edition. J.M. Berg, J.L.Tymoczko, L. Stryer.New York, 2002.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
1833 Torin 1 mTOR inhibitor €90.00
2072 Tofacitinib citrate Potent Janus Kinase 3 (JAK3) inhibitor €115.00
2180 TMP 195 HDAC inhibitor (class IIA selective) €110.00
1507 TMI 005 TACE/MMP inhibitor €125.00
3076 TJ191 Potent and selective anti-cancer agent targeting low TβRIII-expressing malignant T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells €120.00
2560 Tilfrinib Brk inhibitor with antiproliferative activity in breast tumor cells €95.00
2300 TIC 10 active isomer Small molecule that transcriptionally induces TRAIL €125.00
2193 Thioridazine hydrochloride DA and α1 adrenoceptor antagonist; MALT1 inhibitor €50.00
1535 Thiazovivin ROCK inhibitor and iPSC stimulator; Stem cell related €90.00
2272 TH 588 hydrochloride First-in-class MTH1 inhibitor €90.00
2934 TH 5487 Potent and selective active-site OGG1 inhibitor €125.00
2996 TH 34 HDAC inhibitor (6, 8, 10 Selective) €120.00
2271 TH 287 hydrochloride First-in-class MTH1 inhibitor €95.00
2339 TH 1834 Tip60 histone acetyltransferase inhibitor €135.00
1417 TGX 221 PI3K inhibitor (p110 β specific) €70.00

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