Signaling Pathways

Axon Ligands™ for research on Signaling Pathways

A basic property of living systems is the ability to respond to extracellular signals by evoking an internal response. Signal-transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of these stimuli. These molecular circuits detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, phenotypic alterations, or ion-channel activity. Signal-transduction pathways follow a broadly similar course that can be viewed as a molecular circuit. Upon an environmental signal, Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Subsequently, second messengers relay information from the receptor-ligand complex into the cell's interior. Particularly important second messengers include cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, calcium ion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, (IP3), and diacylglycerol. While these second messengers are free to move, they can easily diffuse to other compartments of the cell, such as the nucleus, where they can influence gene expression and other processes. Interestingly, signal transduction may be amplified significantly in the generation of second messengers, since initial stimulation may lead to the generation of many second messengers within the cell. Thus, a low concentration of signal in the environment, even as little as a single molecule, can yield a large intracellular signal and response. Besides this phenomenon, cross-talk between two or more signaling cascades may occur, which permits more finely tuned regulation of cell activity than would the action of individual independent pathways[1]


[1] Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism. Biochemistry. 5th edition. J.M. Berg, J.L.Tymoczko, L. Stryer.New York, 2002.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
1893 VE 821 Inhibitor of the DNA damage response kinase ATR €80.00
1411 Vandetanib VEGFR and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor €50.00
2991 USP7-USP47 inhibitor Selective inhibitor of deubiquitinase USP7 and USP47 €90.00
2369 UPF 1069 PARP-2 inhibitor with >26 fold selectivity over PARP1 €75.00
2418 UNC 0379 Substrate competitive inhibitor of the H4K20 HMTase SETD8 €125.00
2518 UF 010 Class I selective HDAC inhibitor that inhibits cancer cell proliferation €60.00
3005 UCB9608 Potent and orally bioavailable PI4KIIIβ inhibitor  Recently added €140.00
2520 U 0126 Non-competitive inhibitor of MEK1/2 and protects brain in stroke models €90.00
1562 TWS 119 GSK-3β inhibitor €70.00
3022 TUPS Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor €135.00
2893 Tucidinostat Orally bioavailable HDAC inhibitor (1, 2, 3, 10 Selective) €95.00
2004 Tubastatin A hydrochloride Potent and selective HDAC6 inhibitor €95.00
1854 TTP 22 Inhibitor of Casein kinase 2 (CK2) €105.00
2100 Trovafloxacin mesylate Inhibitor of bacterial DNA gyrase and Topo IV €95.00
1834 Torin 2 mTOR inhibitor €90.00

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