Signaling Pathways

Axon Ligands™ for research on Signaling Pathways

A basic property of living systems is the ability to respond to extracellular signals by evoking an internal response. Signal-transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of these stimuli. These molecular circuits detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, phenotypic alterations, or ion-channel activity. Signal-transduction pathways follow a broadly similar course that can be viewed as a molecular circuit. Upon an environmental signal, Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Subsequently, second messengers relay information from the receptor-ligand complex into the cell's interior. Particularly important second messengers include cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, calcium ion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, (IP3), and diacylglycerol. While these second messengers are free to move, they can easily diffuse to other compartments of the cell, such as the nucleus, where they can influence gene expression and other processes. Interestingly, signal transduction may be amplified significantly in the generation of second messengers, since initial stimulation may lead to the generation of many second messengers within the cell. Thus, a low concentration of signal in the environment, even as little as a single molecule, can yield a large intracellular signal and response. Besides this phenomenon, cross-talk between two or more signaling cascades may occur, which permits more finely tuned regulation of cell activity than would the action of individual independent pathways[1]


[1] Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism. Biochemistry. 5th edition. J.M. Berg, J.L.Tymoczko, L. Stryer.New York, 2002.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
2445 ZLN 024 Allosteric activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) €90.00
2379 ZLN 005 Selective transcriptional regulator of peroxisome PPAR-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). €45.00
2138 ZCL 278 Cdc42 GTPase inhibitor, targeting Cdc42–ITSN interaction €105.00
1685 YS 49 Antiplatelet, antithrombotic €135.00
2675 YMU1 Selective inhibitor of human thymidylate kinase (hTMPK) €110.00
1639 YM 155 Survivin suppressant €95.00
2469 YK 4-279 Inhibitor of ETV1, ERG and interactions of EWS-FLI1 and RNA helicase A €95.00
1683 Y 27632 dihydrochloride ROCK1 and ROCK2 inhibitor €65.00
1621 XMD 8-92 trifluoroacetate BMK1 inhibitor; ERK5 inhibitor €70.00
1846 XMD 8-92 BMK1 inhibitor; ERK5 inhibitor €70.00
1706 XL PI3K/mTOR inhibitor Dual PI3K and mTOR kinase inhibitor €125.00
2268 XL 413 hydrochloride Potent, selective and orally bioavailable CDC7 inhibitor €120.00
2951 XL 388 Highly potent, selective, ATP-competitive, and orally bioavailable mTOR inhibitor €125.00
2231 XL 019 JAK2 inhibitor €100.00
1527 XAV 939 Tankyrase (TNKS) inhibitor €80.00

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