Signaling Pathways

Axon Ligands™ for research on Signaling Pathways

A basic property of living systems is the ability to respond to extracellular signals by evoking an internal response. Signal-transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of these stimuli. These molecular circuits detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, phenotypic alterations, or ion-channel activity. Signal-transduction pathways follow a broadly similar course that can be viewed as a molecular circuit. Upon an environmental signal, Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Subsequently, second messengers relay information from the receptor-ligand complex into the cell's interior. Particularly important second messengers include cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, calcium ion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, (IP3), and diacylglycerol. While these second messengers are free to move, they can easily diffuse to other compartments of the cell, such as the nucleus, where they can influence gene expression and other processes. Interestingly, signal transduction may be amplified significantly in the generation of second messengers, since initial stimulation may lead to the generation of many second messengers within the cell. Thus, a low concentration of signal in the environment, even as little as a single molecule, can yield a large intracellular signal and response. Besides this phenomenon, cross-talk between two or more signaling cascades may occur, which permits more finely tuned regulation of cell activity than would the action of individual independent pathways[1]


[1] Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism. Biochemistry. 5th edition. J.M. Berg, J.L.Tymoczko, L. Stryer.New York, 2002.

7 Item(s)

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Axon ID Name Description From price
2396 RBC 8 Inhibitor of the RAS-like small GTPases RalA and RalB €125.00
2017 ML 210 Chemical probe that selectively kills cells induced to express mutant RAS €115.00
2302 Kobe 0065 HRAS inhibitor €70.00
2264 Forskolin Activator of adenylate cyclase. Naturally occurring labdane diterpene €90.00
2829 Fendiline hydrochloride KRAS inhibitor; Ca2+ channel blocker (L-type voltage gated) €50.00
2184 CID 1067700 First inhibitor of Rab7 GTPase €125.00
2397 BQU 57 Inhibitor of the RAS-like small GTPases RalA and RalB €125.00

7 Item(s)

per page
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