Signaling Pathways

Axon Ligands™ for research on Signaling Pathways

A basic property of living systems is the ability to respond to extracellular signals by evoking an internal response. Signal-transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of these stimuli. These molecular circuits detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, phenotypic alterations, or ion-channel activity. Signal-transduction pathways follow a broadly similar course that can be viewed as a molecular circuit. Upon an environmental signal, Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Subsequently, second messengers relay information from the receptor-ligand complex into the cell's interior. Particularly important second messengers include cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, calcium ion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, (IP3), and diacylglycerol. While these second messengers are free to move, they can easily diffuse to other compartments of the cell, such as the nucleus, where they can influence gene expression and other processes. Interestingly, signal transduction may be amplified significantly in the generation of second messengers, since initial stimulation may lead to the generation of many second messengers within the cell. Thus, a low concentration of signal in the environment, even as little as a single molecule, can yield a large intracellular signal and response. Besides this phenomenon, cross-talk between two or more signaling cascades may occur, which permits more finely tuned regulation of cell activity than would the action of individual independent pathways[1]


[1] Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism. Biochemistry. 5th edition. J.M. Berg, J.L.Tymoczko, L. Stryer.New York, 2002.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
2984 WS-383 Highly potent, selective, and cellular active inhibitor of DCN1-UBC12 protein-protein interaction  Recently added €125.00
1779 WP 1130 Deubiquitinase Inhibitor €95.00
2991 USP7-USP47 inhibitor Selective inhibitor of deubiquitinase USP7 and USP47 €90.00
2333 TCID Potent inhibitor of UCHL3 with >100-fold selectivity over UCHL1 €80.00
2512 Spautin 1 Inhibitor of USP10 and USP13 and Beclin1 related autophagy €95.00
1904 SMER 3 Inhibitor of an SCF family E3 Ubiquitin ligase €90.00
1953 PRT 4165 E3 Ubiquitin ligase Bmi1/Ring1A inhibitor €70.00
1906 P 22077 Inhibitor of deubiquitinase USP7 and USP47 €95.00
2011 P 005091 Inhibitor of deubiquitinase USP7 and USP47 €95.00
2199 ONX 0914 Selective inhibitor of LMP7 subunit of the immunoproteasome. €95.00
2228 NSC 687852 Inhibitor of 19S regulatory-particle–associated deubiquitinases (DUBs: UCHL5 and USP14) €90.00
2565 N106 Activator of E1 ligase mediated SERCA2a SUMOylation €95.00
2557 MLN 9708 Citrate prodrug of MLN 2238, selective and reversible 20S proteasome inhibitor €95.00
2556 MLN 2238 Selective and reversible 20S proteasome inhibitor €85.00
2678 ML364 Inhibitor of the deubiquitinase USP2 €125.00

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