Signaling Pathways

Axon Ligands™ for research on Signaling Pathways

A basic property of living systems is the ability to respond to extracellular signals by evoking an internal response. Signal-transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of these stimuli. These molecular circuits detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, phenotypic alterations, or ion-channel activity. Signal-transduction pathways follow a broadly similar course that can be viewed as a molecular circuit. Upon an environmental signal, Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Subsequently, second messengers relay information from the receptor-ligand complex into the cell's interior. Particularly important second messengers include cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, calcium ion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, (IP3), and diacylglycerol. While these second messengers are free to move, they can easily diffuse to other compartments of the cell, such as the nucleus, where they can influence gene expression and other processes. Interestingly, signal transduction may be amplified significantly in the generation of second messengers, since initial stimulation may lead to the generation of many second messengers within the cell. Thus, a low concentration of signal in the environment, even as little as a single molecule, can yield a large intracellular signal and response. Besides this phenomenon, cross-talk between two or more signaling cascades may occur, which permits more finely tuned regulation of cell activity than would the action of individual independent pathways[1]


[1] Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism. Biochemistry. 5th edition. J.M. Berg, J.L.Tymoczko, L. Stryer.New York, 2002.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
1167 GSK 269962A ROCK1 and ROCK2 inhibitor €65.00
2181 GSK 2578215A Potent and highly selective LRRK2 inhibitor €125.00
2466 Gö 6983 Broad spectrum PKC inhibitor lacking inhibitory effect for PKCμ €90.00
1882 GNF 2 Inhibitor of Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase €125.00
2348 GNE 7915 Potent, selective, metabolically stable, and brain-penetrable LRRK2 inhibitor €110.00
1682 Enzastaurin PKC-β inhibitor €95.00
2574 Defactinib Orally available second generation inhibitor of FAK and PYK2 €95.00
1392 Dasatinib Bcr-Abl and Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor €90.00
3235 Dacomitinib Potent irreversible pan-HER inhibitor €60.00
2305 CX 6258 hydrochloride Pim kinase inhibitor €99.00
1965 CX 4945 hydrochloride Inhibitor of Casein kinase 2 (CK2) €90.00
2656 CRT0066854 Selective ATP-competitive inhibitor of the atypical PKC isoenzymes €135.00
1537 CP 724714 ErbB-2/HER2 kinase inhibitor €80.00
2202 CK2 inhibitor 10 Potent and ATP-competitive inhibitor of CK2 €105.00
2435 CHIR 99021 dihydrochloride GSK-3 inhibitor €60.00

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