Signaling Pathways

Axon Ligands™ for research on Signaling Pathways

A basic property of living systems is the ability to respond to extracellular signals by evoking an internal response. Signal-transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of these stimuli. These molecular circuits detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, phenotypic alterations, or ion-channel activity. Signal-transduction pathways follow a broadly similar course that can be viewed as a molecular circuit. Upon an environmental signal, Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Subsequently, second messengers relay information from the receptor-ligand complex into the cell's interior. Particularly important second messengers include cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, calcium ion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, (IP3), and diacylglycerol. While these second messengers are free to move, they can easily diffuse to other compartments of the cell, such as the nucleus, where they can influence gene expression and other processes. Interestingly, signal transduction may be amplified significantly in the generation of second messengers, since initial stimulation may lead to the generation of many second messengers within the cell. Thus, a low concentration of signal in the environment, even as little as a single molecule, can yield a large intracellular signal and response. Besides this phenomenon, cross-talk between two or more signaling cascades may occur, which permits more finely tuned regulation of cell activity than would the action of individual independent pathways[1]


[1] Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism. Biochemistry. 5th edition. J.M. Berg, J.L.Tymoczko, L. Stryer.New York, 2002.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
5010 Naive Stem Cell NHSM inhibitor Set Set of inhibitors for isolation, generation, derivatization and stabilization of naive hPSCs €230.00
5011 Naive Stem Cell 5i inhibitor Set Set of five inhibitors for the induction and maintenance of human naive stem cell pluripotency €200.00
1401 LY 333531 mesylate PKC-β inhibitor €75.00
2362 LY 333531 hydrochloride PKC-β inhibitor €75.00
2493 LRRK2-IN-1 Potent, ATP-competitive and selective inhibitor of LRRK2 €85.00
2998 Longdaysin Potent CK1δ/CK1α inhibitor €125.00
2297 LH 846 Inhibitor of Casein kinase 1 (CK1δ) €95.00
1395 Lapatinib ditosylate EGFR and ErbB-2/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor €80.00
2780 KD025 Selective ATP-competitive inhibitor of ROCK2 €95.00
2121 INNO 406 Dual Bcr-Abl and Lyn kinase inhibitor €85.00
1394 Imatinib mesylate Bcr-Abl, c-KIT and PDGFR kinase inhibitor €60.00
2511 IM 12 GSK-3β inhibitor attenuating neuronal differentiation of human NPCs €95.00
2608 GSK481 Potent inhibitor of RIP1 kinase and TNF induced inflammation €95.00
3024 GSK'872 Potent and selective RIP3 kinase inhibitor €95.00
2713 GSK 2982772 Specific inhibitor of RIP1 kinase €115.00

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