Signaling Pathways

Axon Ligands™ for research on Signaling Pathways

A basic property of living systems is the ability to respond to extracellular signals by evoking an internal response. Signal-transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of these stimuli. These molecular circuits detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, phenotypic alterations, or ion-channel activity. Signal-transduction pathways follow a broadly similar course that can be viewed as a molecular circuit. Upon an environmental signal, Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Subsequently, second messengers relay information from the receptor-ligand complex into the cell's interior. Particularly important second messengers include cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, calcium ion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, (IP3), and diacylglycerol. While these second messengers are free to move, they can easily diffuse to other compartments of the cell, such as the nucleus, where they can influence gene expression and other processes. Interestingly, signal transduction may be amplified significantly in the generation of second messengers, since initial stimulation may lead to the generation of many second messengers within the cell. Thus, a low concentration of signal in the environment, even as little as a single molecule, can yield a large intracellular signal and response. Besides this phenomenon, cross-talk between two or more signaling cascades may occur, which permits more finely tuned regulation of cell activity than would the action of individual independent pathways[1]


[1] Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism. Biochemistry. 5th edition. J.M. Berg, J.L.Tymoczko, L. Stryer.New York, 2002.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
1685 YS 49 Antiplatelet, antithrombotic €135.00
1706 XL PI3K/mTOR inhibitor Dual PI3K and mTOR kinase inhibitor €125.00
2951 XL 388 Highly potent, selective, ATP-competitive, and orally bioavailable mTOR inhibitor €125.00
3005 UCB9608 Potent and orally bioavailable PI4KIIIβ inhibitor  Recently added €140.00
1834 Torin 2 mTOR inhibitor €90.00
1833 Torin 1 mTOR inhibitor €90.00
1417 TGX 221 PI3K inhibitor (p110 β specific) €70.00
1699 Temsirolimus mTOR inhibitor €95.00
2927 Taselisib PI3K inhibitor (p110 β sparing) €90.00
2507 SC 79 Unique specific activator of cytosolic Akt; neuroprotective €75.00
1790 SC 66 Allosteric Akt inhibitor €70.00
2716 SAR405 PIK3C3/Vps34 inhibitor €90.00
2069 Rapamycin Specific inhibitor of mTOR; binds to FKBP12 €85.00
1659 PS 48 Allosteric activator of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDPK1) €80.00
1664 PS 47 Negative control of PS 48 as an allosteric PDK1 activator €90.00

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