Signaling Pathways

Axon Ligands™ for research on Signaling Pathways

A basic property of living systems is the ability to respond to extracellular signals by evoking an internal response. Signal-transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of these stimuli. These molecular circuits detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, phenotypic alterations, or ion-channel activity. Signal-transduction pathways follow a broadly similar course that can be viewed as a molecular circuit. Upon an environmental signal, Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Subsequently, second messengers relay information from the receptor-ligand complex into the cell's interior. Particularly important second messengers include cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, calcium ion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, (IP3), and diacylglycerol. While these second messengers are free to move, they can easily diffuse to other compartments of the cell, such as the nucleus, where they can influence gene expression and other processes. Interestingly, signal transduction may be amplified significantly in the generation of second messengers, since initial stimulation may lead to the generation of many second messengers within the cell. Thus, a low concentration of signal in the environment, even as little as a single molecule, can yield a large intracellular signal and response. Besides this phenomenon, cross-talk between two or more signaling cascades may occur, which permits more finely tuned regulation of cell activity than would the action of individual independent pathways[1]

[1] Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism. Biochemistry. 5th edition. J.M. Berg, J.L.Tymoczko, L. Stryer.New York, 2002.

15 Item(s)

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Axon ID Name Description From price
2749 BT-11 First-in-class, orally active LANCL2 binding compound €105.00
2645 CC-885 Cereblon (CRBN) modulator with potent anti-tumour activity €135.00
2455 CU-T12-9 Selective TLR1/TLR2 agonist that facilitates the TLR1/2 complex formation €120.00
2438 Cuspin-1 Upregulator of the Survival of Motor Neuron protein (SMN) by Ras signaling activation €95.00
3459 Dacarbazine DNA alkylating agent; antineoplastic agent €50.00
1935 DiMNF Selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulator (SAhRM) €105.00
3715 E-7386 CBP/beta-catenin modulator Inquire
2318 FC 99 hydrochloride Inhibitor of TLR3 expression and inflammatory responses. €95.00
2327 NEO 212 DNA alkylating agent; chemotherapeutic €110.00
2647 Pirfenidone Broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis agent €60.00
2999 RCGD 423 gp130 signalling modulator €95.00
2544 S3QEL 2 Suppressor of superoxide production from mitochondrial complex III €60.00
2487 Silibinin Natural flavonolignan, cytoprotectant, antioxidant, and antihepatotoxic agent €40.00
2326 Temozolomide DNA methylating agent; apoptosis inducer €50.00
3410 UTL-5g TNFα modulator €120.00

15 Item(s)

per page
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