Signaling Pathways

Axon Ligands™ for research on Signaling Pathways

A basic property of living systems is the ability to respond to extracellular signals by evoking an internal response. Signal-transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of these stimuli. These molecular circuits detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, phenotypic alterations, or ion-channel activity. Signal-transduction pathways follow a broadly similar course that can be viewed as a molecular circuit. Upon an environmental signal, Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Subsequently, second messengers relay information from the receptor-ligand complex into the cell's interior. Particularly important second messengers include cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, calcium ion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, (IP3), and diacylglycerol. While these second messengers are free to move, they can easily diffuse to other compartments of the cell, such as the nucleus, where they can influence gene expression and other processes. Interestingly, signal transduction may be amplified significantly in the generation of second messengers, since initial stimulation may lead to the generation of many second messengers within the cell. Thus, a low concentration of signal in the environment, even as little as a single molecule, can yield a large intracellular signal and response. Besides this phenomenon, cross-talk between two or more signaling cascades may occur, which permits more finely tuned regulation of cell activity than would the action of individual independent pathways[1]


[1] Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism. Biochemistry. 5th edition. J.M. Berg, J.L.Tymoczko, L. Stryer.New York, 2002.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
1865 Stemregenin 1 Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist €105.00
1387 SD 208 TGF-βR 1 inhibitor €60.00
2285 SB 525334 Potent and selective inhibitor of the TGF-βR1 (ALK5) receptor €105.00
2197 SB 505124 Selective inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptors ALK4 and ALK5 €95.00
1661 SB 431542 TGF-βR1 inhibitor; ALK inhibitor €70.00
3151 QND7 nAChR antagonist (α7 sub-unit selective)  Recently added €130.00
2027 PF 5274857 hydrochloride Smoothened (SMO) antagonist €95.00
1619 NVP-LDE225 Smoothened (SMO) antagonist €85.00
1938 MRT 10 Smoothened (SMO) receptor antagonist €125.00
2196 LY 2940680 Small-molecule antagonist of the Smoothened (SMO) receptor €120.00
1491 LY 2157299 TGF-βR2 inhibitor €65.00
2201 LDN 212854 trihydrochloride Potent ALK2-biased BMP type I receptor kinase inhibitor €105.00
1509 LDN 193189 hydrochloride Highly potent small molecule inhibitor of BMP type I receptors ALK2, ALK3, and ALK6 €65.00
2189 K 02288 Inhibitor of BMP signaling. Inhibits ALK1, 2, and 6 €90.00
2467 ITD-1, (+)- Selective inhibitor of TGFβ/Smad signaling that promotes cardiogenesis €165.00

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