Signaling Pathways

Axon Ligands™ for research on Signaling Pathways

A basic property of living systems is the ability to respond to extracellular signals by evoking an internal response. Signal-transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of these stimuli. These molecular circuits detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, phenotypic alterations, or ion-channel activity. Signal-transduction pathways follow a broadly similar course that can be viewed as a molecular circuit. Upon an environmental signal, Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Subsequently, second messengers relay information from the receptor-ligand complex into the cell's interior. Particularly important second messengers include cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, calcium ion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, (IP3), and diacylglycerol. While these second messengers are free to move, they can easily diffuse to other compartments of the cell, such as the nucleus, where they can influence gene expression and other processes. Interestingly, signal transduction may be amplified significantly in the generation of second messengers, since initial stimulation may lead to the generation of many second messengers within the cell. Thus, a low concentration of signal in the environment, even as little as a single molecule, can yield a large intracellular signal and response. Besides this phenomenon, cross-talk between two or more signaling cascades may occur, which permits more finely tuned regulation of cell activity than would the action of individual independent pathways[1]


[1] Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism. Biochemistry. 5th edition. J.M. Berg, J.L.Tymoczko, L. Stryer.New York, 2002.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
1466 A 769662 AMPK activator €85.00
2389 AICAR Potent AMPK activator and inducer of differentiation of NSCs €45.00
2185 BAM 7 Selective small-molecule activator of proapoptotic BAX €105.00
2575 C-DIM12 Nurr1 activator that stimulates apoptosis in bladder cancer cells €85.00
2841 COTI-2 Reactivator of mutant p53 €125.00
2264 Forskolin Activator of adenylate cyclase. Naturally occurring labdane diterpene €90.00
2021 HL 010183 Metformin derivative; AMPK activator €135.00
2425 MHY 1485 mTOR activator with an inhibitory effect on autophagy €70.00
2641 ML334 Activator of NRF2 by inhibition of Keap1-NRF2 interactions €120.00
2565 N106 Activator of E1 ligase mediated SERCA2a SUMOylation €95.00
2955 NSC 228155 EGFR tyrosine kinase activator; Inhibitor of KIX-KID interaction €75.00
2016 NSC 319726 Reactivator of the p53 mutant p53R175 €95.00
2564 NSC 59984 Activator of p53 that restores WT p53 signaling via p73 activation €95.00
2651 OAC2 Oct4 and Nanog activating compound that enhances reprogramming efficiency €60.00
1659 PS 48 Allosteric activator of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDPK1) €80.00

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