TGF-β

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family, including TGF-β, activin, Nodal, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and others, play vital roles in diverse cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell plasticity and migration. The type I receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs) are also known as activin receptor-like kinases (ALKs) for which a systematic nomenclature has been proposed (ALK1-7) Its dysfunctions can result in various kinds of diseases, such as cancer and tissue fibrosis. Ligand binding leads to formation of the receptor heterocomplex, in which TGF-βRII phosphorylates threonine and serine residues  of TGF-βRI and thus activates TGF-βRI. The activated TGF-βRI recruits and phosphorylates a subset of SMAD proteins (SMAD 2/3) which are then translocated to the nucleus where they form transcription complexes with DNA binding factors and co-activators/co-repressors to regulate transcription of the target genes[1]. In normal cells, TGF-β, acting through its signaling pathway, stops the cell cycle at the G1 stage to stop proliferation, induce differentiation, or promote apoptosis. When a cell is transformed into a cancer cell, parts of the TGF-β signaling pathway are mutated, and TGF-β no longer controls the cell. These cancer cells proliferate[2].


[1] Regulation of TGF-β receptor activity. F. Huang Y.G. Chen. Cell Biosc. 2012, 2-9.
[2] Mechanisms of TGF-beta signaling from cell membrane to the nucleus. Shi Y, Massagué J. Cell. 2003, 113, 685-700.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
2187 AS 1892802 Potent, selective, ATP-competitive ROCK inhibitor €95.00
2005 ASP 3026 Inhibitor of the oncogenic fusion kinase EML4-ALK €80.00
5051 Axon Ligands™ Cell signaling and Oncology compound library Axon Ligands™ Cell signaling and Oncology compound library Inquire
5053 Axon Ligands™ Stem cell compound library Axon Ligands™ Stem cell compound library Inquire
2753 CCG 232601 Rho/MRTF/SRF transcriptional pathway inhibitor €160.00
3092 CCG-203971 Rho/MRTF/SRF transcriptional pathway inhibitor €60.00
3069 CCG-222740 Potent and selective Rho/MRTF/SRF transcriptional pathway inhibitor €145.00
1167 GSK 269962A ROCK1 and ROCK2 inhibitor €65.00
2780 KD025 Selective ATP-competitive inhibitor of ROCK2 €95.00
2229 RKI 1447 Potent inhibitor of the Rho-associated ROCK kinases €105.00
5009 Stem Cell 4i inhibitor Set Set of Thiazovivin, SB 431542, PD 0325901, and CHIR 99021 (inhibitors of ROCK, TGF-β, MEK, and GSK-3 resp.) €170.00
5007 Stem Cell 5i inhibitor Set Set of five inhibitors for neural differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. €200.00
1535 Thiazovivin ROCK inhibitor and iPSC stimulator; Stem cell related €90.00
1683 Y 27632 dihydrochloride ROCK1 and ROCK2 inhibitor €65.00

14 Item(s)

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