NF-κB

The NF-κB signaling pathway is involved in a broad range of biological processes including innate and adaptive immunity, inflammation, stress responses, B-cell development, and lymphoid organogenesis. A remarkable diversity of stimuli lead to the activation of NF-κB, among which are pro-inflammatory cytokines, LPS, growth factors, and antigen receptors. They activate an IKK complex (IKKβ, IKKα, and NEMO), which phosphorylates IκB proteins. Phosphorylation of IκB leads to its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, freeing NF-κB/Rel complexes. Active NF-κB/Rel complexes are further activated by phosphorylation and translocate to the nucleus where, either alone or in combination with other transcription factor families including AP-1, Ets, and Stat, they induce target gene expression[1],[2]. The core elements of NF-κB signaling pathways are generally several steps removed from the receptor itself. The intervening steps between receptor and IKK form links to parallel signaling pathways. For example, PKC enzymes play important roles in several signal transduction cascades. In NF-κB signaling, PKC-β connects the B cell receptor to canonical activation of NF-κB through a signaling complex, including Bcl10/MALT1 and NEMO/IKKγ[3].


[1] M.S. Hayden, S. Ghosh. Shared principles in NF-kappaB signaling. Cell. 2008, 132, 344-362.
[2]  Rel/NF-κB Transcription Factors. Gilmore TD. http://www.bu.edu/nf-kb/ 2008.
[3] Protein Kinase C-β-Dependent Activation of NF-κB in Stromal Cells Is Indispensable for the Survival of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells In Vivo. G. Lutzny et al. Cancer Cell. 2013, 23, 77-92.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
2443 Rosiglitazone PPARγ agonist; antidiabetic drug and stem cell differentiator €95.00
2497 RTA 408 Triterpenoid activator of NRF2 and inhibitor of NF-κB €110.00
2666 S-Propargyl-Cysteine Modulator of endogenous hydrogen disulfide €95.00
2444 SB 706504 Selective p38 MAPK inhibitor that targets a subset of inflammatory macrophage genes. €125.00
2487 Silibinin Natural flavonolignan, cytoprotectant, antioxidant, and antihepatotoxic agent €40.00
1635 Sotrastaurin PKC inhibitor €75.00
2519 SP 600125 Selective, reversible, and ATP-competitive JNK inhibitor €70.00
2143 SPD 304 Cell permeable inhibitor of TNFα €145.00
2365 SR 3576 Very potent JNK3 inhibitor with >2800-fold selectivity over p38 €135.00
2070 Sulfasalazine IKK inhibitor €45.00
2263 Tacrolimus Potent Calcineurin (Ca2+ dependent protein phosphatase 2B) inhibitor €100.00
2339 TH 1834 Tip60 histone acetyltransferase inhibitor €135.00
2193 Thioridazine hydrochloride DA and α1 adrenoceptor antagonist; MALT1 inhibitor €50.00
1507 TMI 005 TACE/MMP inhibitor €125.00

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