Diabetes & Metabolism

Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are two of the most common diseases in Westernized, industrialized civilizations, and the frequency of both diseases increases with increasing age. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both, and associated with a considerably increased cardiovascular risk, peripheral vascular diseases, stroke, retinopathy, and nephropathy. Two types of diabetes mellitus are recognized based on the presumed etiology. In type 1 diabetes, the body fails to produce insulin as a result of an auto-immune reaction that destroys the islet cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, and daily insulin injections are required. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed during childhood or early adolescence and it affects about 1 in every 600 children. Type 2 diabetes is the result of failure to produce sufficient insulin and insulin resistance. Elevated blood glucose levels are managed with reduced food intake, increased physical activity, and eventually oral medications or insulin. Type 2 diabetes is typically diagnosed during adulthood. However with the increasing incidence of childhood obesity and concurrent insulin resistance, the number of children diagnosed with type 2 diabetes has also increased worldwide.
The hallmark of hypertension in type I and type II diabetics appears to be increased peripheral vascular resistance. Increased exchangeable sodium may also play a role in the pathogenesis of blood pressure in diabetics. Evidence is accumulating that insulin resistance, or hyperinsulinemia, may play a key role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in both subtle and overt abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism. Population studies suggest that elevated insulin levels, which often occurs in type II diabetes mellitus, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic individuals include abnormalities of lipid metabolism, platelet function, and clotting factors.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
1562 TWS 119 GSK-3β inhibitor €70.00
2010 TDZD 8 Selective and non-ATP-competitive inhibitor of GSK-3β €90.00
5006 Stem Cell CSD inhibitor Set Set of CHIR 99021, SU5402, and DAPT, inhibitors of GSK-3, FGFR, and γ-secretase, resp. €155.00
2130 Stem Cell Alternative 2i inhibitor Set Set of SRC inhibitor CGP77675 (Axon 2097) and GSK-3 inhibitor CHIR99021 (Axon 1386) €110.00
5007 Stem Cell 5i inhibitor Set Set of five inhibitors for neural differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. €220.00
5009 Stem Cell 4i inhibitor Set Set of Thiazovivin, SB 431542, PD 0325901, and CHIR 99021 (inhibitors of ROCK, TGF-β, MEK, and GSK-3 resp.) €190.00
1303 SB 216763 GSK-3 inhibitor €85.00
3154 rac-BRD0705 GSK3α inhibitor €140.00
5010 Naive Stem Cell NHSM inhibitor Set Set of inhibitors for isolation, generation, derivatization and stabilization of naive hPSCs €260.00
5011 Naive Stem Cell 5i inhibitor Set Set of five inhibitors for the induction and maintenance of human naive stem cell pluripotency €220.00
2780 KD025 Selective ATP-competitive inhibitor of ROCK2 €95.00
2511 IM 12 GSK-3β inhibitor attenuating neuronal differentiation of human NPCs €95.00
2435 CHIR 99021 dihydrochloride GSK-3 inhibitor €60.00
1386 CHIR 99021 GSK-3 inhibitor €60.00
1126 CHIR 98014 GSK-3 inhibitor €95.00

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