Four fundamentally different classes of membrane-bound transport proteins exist in organisms: ion channels; transporters; aquaporins; and ATP-powered pumps. Transport proteins serve the function of moving other materials within an organism. Basically, there are two different types of transport proteins: those that carry molecules to "distant" locations (within a cell or an organism), and those that serve as gateways, carrying molecules across otherwise impermeable membranes[1]. One example of a specific transporter that plays a key role in the metabolism of many organisms is the sodium dependent glucose co-transporter (SGLT), for example. A protein highly abundant in kidneys, that serves renal glucose reabsorption, and therefore is of high interest as a target for the treatment of diabetes[2] (for example SGLT2 inhibitor Remogliflozin (Axon 1634)).

[1] J.M. Berg, J.L. Tymoczko, L. Stryer. Biochemistry, 2002, 5th edition.New York. W. H. Freeman.
[2] Remogliflozin etabonate, in a Novel Category of Selective Low-Affinity / High-Capacity Sodium Glucose Cotransporter (SGLT2) Inhibitors, Exhibits Antidiabetic Efficacy in Rodent Models. Y. Fujimori, K. Katsuno,I. Nakashima, Y. Ishikawa-Takemura, H. Fujikura, M. Isaji. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2008, 327, 268–276.

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