Enzymes

A fundamental task of proteins is to act as enzymes: catalysts that increase the rate of virtually all the chemical reactions within cells. They are highly selective, accelerating both the rate and specificity of metabolic reactions, from the digestion of food to the synthesis of DNA. Most enzymes are proteins, although some catalytic RNA molecules have been identified as well. Cells contain thousands of different enzymes, and their activities determine which of the many possible chemical reactions actually take place within the cell. The binding of a substrate to the active site of an enzyme is a very specific interaction. Once a substrate is bound to the active site of an enzyme, multiple mechanisms can accelerate its conversion to the product of the reaction. Examples of enzymatic conversions of substrates include peptide bond formation or cleavage, hydrolysis and condensation, oxidation and reduction, phosphorylation, and many more. In addition to binding their substrates, the active sites of many enzymes bind other ions or small molecules that participate in catalysis. These molecules are called co-enzymes and/or co-factors. In contrast to substrates, coenzymes are not irreversibly altered by the reactions in which they are involved. While most enzymes move freely (intra- and extracellular) within the organism, many enzymes are anchored to either membranes or receptors[1]. The Axon Ligands™ that interact with enzymatic processes are arranged into the six major classes of enzymes in line with the rules of classification stated by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology[2].


[1] The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Cooper GM. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2000.
[2] Enzyme Nomenclature 1992. Academic Press,San Diego,California, ISBN 0-12-227164-5.

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Axon ID Name Description From price
1810 Bortezomib Inhibitor of 26S proteasome €85.00
1798 Eeyarestatin I Inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation (ERAD) €80.00
2449 LDN 57444 Reversible, competitive inhibitor of UCH-L1 deubiquitinase €95.00
1869 MG 132 Inhibitor of 26S proteasome €95.00
2309 ML 323 Selective, reversible and potent inhibitor of the USP1–UAF1 deubiquitinase complex €95.00
2678 ML364 Inhibitor of the deubiquitinase USP2 €125.00
2556 MLN 2238 Selective and reversible 20S proteasome inhibitor €85.00
2557 MLN 9708 Citrate prodrug of MLN 2238, selective and reversible 20S proteasome inhibitor €95.00
2565 N106 Activator of E1 ligase mediated SERCA2a SUMOylation €95.00
2228 NSC 687852 Inhibitor of 19S regulatory-particle–associated deubiquitinases (DUBs: UCHL5 and USP14) €90.00
2199 ONX 0914 Selective inhibitor of LMP7 subunit of the immunoproteasome. €95.00
2011 P 005091 Inhibitor of deubiquitinase USP7 and USP47 €95.00
1906 P 22077 Inhibitor of deubiquitinase USP7 and USP47 €95.00
1953 PRT 4165 E3 Ubiquitin ligase Bmi1/Ring1A inhibitor €70.00
1904 SMER 3 Inhibitor of an SCF family E3 Ubiquitin ligase €90.00

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